Designs for wellhead protection in Central Wisconsin

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9/29/1989 - 11/30/1989

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  • Thomas Osborne
  • Jennifer L. Sorenson
  • Mark R. Knaak
  • David J. Mechenich

This report documents the first wellhead protection area (WHPA) studies in the j state of Wisconsin pursuant to the 1986 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments. Two communities were examined: the city of Wisconsin Rapids in Wood County and the | town of Weston in Marathon County. Although hydrogeologic conditions of the study areas are similar, the two community situations contrast significantly. The i town of Weston has already experienced contamination problems in its two principal municipal wells and extensive studies have been completed identifying possible sources of contamination and remedial action alternatives. The recharge area of A Weston’s municipal wells lies entirely within the jurisdiction of the township. Wisconsin Rapids, in contrast, has not yet experienced city well contamination. However, their three existing wells and a fourth proposed well all lie within the a adjoining town of Grand Rapids which is experiencing increasing urbanization. This situation has shown the need for the development of innovative management | options involving inter-jurisdictional cooperation.

Three main steps were completed: delineation of the zones of contribution, Identification and mapping of potential contaminant sources and development of management strategy options to be used in the implementation of a wellhead i protection plan. The zones of contribution (ZOCs) for the wellfields were defined | using Incremental applications of the uniform flow equation, modified by consideration of hydrogeologic boundaries and the balance between muni Cclpal pumping i rate and natural recharge. Time of travel isochrones for ground water contaminants were presented in frequency diagrams based on Monte Carlo simulations of the average pore water velocity equation.

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